dBx Acoustics

Jargon Buster – Sound Insulation

Today’s jargon buster is about sound insulation. Very broadly, the level of sound insulation of a partition indicates how well it stops sound from passing through. It’s used, for example, in testing party walls and floors to see if they are compliant with Approved Document E. It also comes into play when we consider speech privacy in offices, hospitals and schools. When people refer to “soundproofing”, sound insulation is generally what they mean.

Types of Sound Insulation – Airborne and Impact

Airborne sound, as you might expect, is sound transferred through the air – for example, someone’s voice, or music from a loudspeaker, sound from a television. This is defined as a variant of either Rw or Dw (see below for more information), and is usually specified as a minimum value which must be achieved.

Impact sound occurs when energy passes into a partition from an impact, and re-radiates as noise on the other side. The example of this you will likely be most familiar with is footsteps upstairs heard in the room below. Impact is a form of structureborne noise, which many of us have also experienced when neighbours decided to get the drill out and do some DIY too early on a Sunday morning! This is specified as a variant of Lw and, in contrast to airborne sound insulation, is specified as an upper limit which must not be exceeded.

So remember – with airborne sound insulation, the higher the figure the better the performance. But with impact sound insulation, the lower the figure, the better.

Specifying Sound Insulation: The Difference between Rw and Dw

Sound insulation is referred to in many different ways, depending on exactly what is being described. For example, DnTw,Tmf(max) is used in testing schools to refer to the on-site sound insulation measured, corrected for the mid frequency reverberation time (Tmf(max)) measured in the receiving room!

It’s generally the acoustic consultant’s job to worry about all of the flavours and variations of sound insulation, according to your particular project. But it is useful as a client to understand the difference between the “Rw” and “Dw” types of specification.

If you are specifying partitions using manufacturer’s data, for example selecting partitions from The White Book, the airborne sound insulation performance will be presented in terms of a laboratory tested Rw figure. The actual performance you get in your site-specific application will be affected by all kinds of things which your friendly acoustic consultant can help to assess, including the volume of the rooms, the area of the partition, reverberation time, background noise, and sound flanking.

Sound Flanking

So what is sound flanking? Well, that’s all the sound that transfers from Room A to Room B by a route other than directly through the partition. With a wall, sound might transfer through the junctions with the floor or ceiling slab or with adjacent walls, if not well detailed and sealed. It’s common on site to find a beautiful partition where someone has then drilled a large hole through for cables, which then hasn’t been sealed properly. Some flanking is inevitable – especially in a refurbishment – but it can be dealt with, with consideration.

Expanding foam is the bane of every acoustic consultant’s life – sorry, but it won’t stop the noise passing through, whatever it says on the can from a Well Known High Street DIY Store. Mass is the key to sound insulation (as well as the air gap between sides of a partition, for higher performance). Small openings need to be properly stopped up with mineral wool and mastic – larger openings may need a cover plate to make them good. Ductwork passing from room to room is also a common issue – crosstalk attenuators can be used to stop ducting acting like an old fashioned “speaking tube” and allowing speech to transfer directly from room to room.

Make an impact!

Very rarely, impact sound might be a concern for walls (e.g. balls hitting a sports hall wall next to a classroom). Sensible design should mean that such adjacencies don’t occur. But impact occurs all the time in floors. It’s less of an issue where there is a soft floor covering such as carpet, but in domestic situations often leads to complaints when carpet is replaced with wooden or laminate floors.

Resilient underlays are widely available commercially to help combat this issue. It’s also worth considering the overall construction of a floor and the ceiling below – a mass-air-mass construction, possibly with the ceiling resiliently hung, will typically perform better than a single layer floor (unless that single layer floor is a LOT of concrete).

So you want to achieve decent sound insulation?

  • Follow the golden rules: Get some help on specification from an acoustic consultant – it’s not just about the wall/floor.
  • Build it properly – sound can be like water, it’ll trickle through any holes you leave.
  • Throw that expanding foam in the bin…please?

dBx Case Studies - Education

There is a proven link between acoustic conditions in schools and educational outcomes. Building Bulletin 93 (BB93) mandates minimum standards in primary and secondary schools for noise levels and room acoustics, as well as acoustic separation between teaching spaces.

The dBx Acoustics team can help you comply with BB93, but our expertise goes even further. We have extensive experience designing environments for pupils with additional needs, including autism and hearing loss, as well as higher education and noisier, practical workshop spaces.

New and refurbished school buildings must comply with Building Regulation E4 and the acoustic performance standards of Building Bulletin 93 (BB93) ‘Acoustic Design of Schools’. Whilst BB93 is not mandatory for higher education establishments, it typically forms the basis of the initial design for such establishments, with modifications as appropriate to allow for specific HE uses. Where projects are being designed with BREEAM in mind, credits HEA05 and POL05 are also relevant.

There are a number of different acoustic aspects which come together to ensure that acoustic conditions in schools are appropriate to support learning, and it’s so important to get it right – studies have shown that educational attainment can be directly correlated to acoustic conditions.

Our involvement often begins at the planning stage with an environmental noise survey, which allows us to advise on ventilation and glazing requirements to control noise ingress to the building. If mechanical ventilation is proposed, if there is an external MUGA, or if community use is proposed, the noise survey also allows noise emission limits to be set to ensure that existing neighbours are not adversely affected by noise.

Internal ambient noise levels in teaching spaces are also affected by mechanical ventilation, and we work with the M&E consultant to specify appropriate noise control measures, such as silencers.
When it comes to the design of the building itself, BB93 requires us to specify partitions and floors to control airborne and impact sound transmission between teaching spaces, based on their relative sensitivity and noise generation characteristics. The detailing of junctions and sealing of any services penetrations is critical in maintaining acoustic separation between adjacent rooms.

Having provided a suitably quiet teaching environment which won’t be adversely affected by activity in other classrooms, our focus moves to room acoustics and control of reverberation. Often this is as simple as specifying the acoustic performance of a suspended ceiling, but for large spaces such as Assembly Halls and Sports Halls, we undertake acoustic modelling to optimise the specification and placement of acoustic finishes. Where an exposed soffit is preferred, we calculate the specification and quantity of finishes, such as acoustic rafts and wall panels to control room acoustic conditions.

Finally, we carry out pre-completion acoustic testing on-site to ensure that all of the acoustic criteria for the project have been complied with on-site.

The dBx Acoustics team also have a particular interest in acoustic design for SEN schools, particularly schools catering to neurodiverse pupils. BB93 specifies design criteria for “children with special hearing and communication needs”, which is intended to include autism, ADHD and auditory processing difficulties, and assists in providing an environment in which speech transmission is clear and effective. The standard does not, however, consider the other acoustic aspects of school life which affect such pupils, including auditory sensitivities and the need to provide spaces to allow a retreat from the noise and bustle of daily school life. Our team’s direct and personal experiences of neurodiversity, both as parents and as individuals, helps us to understand the requirements of individual educational clients, and help guide the design of educational buildings to provide an acoustically diverse and appropriate environment.

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